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Monday 21st of September 2020
Kalam and Beliefs
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How does the Quran present God?

How does the Quran present God?
When we wish to assess the scientific personality and knowledge of a scholar, we examine his works and subject them to close study. Similarly, in order to measure the talent, creativity and ability of an artist to invent original images, we undertake the study of his artistic production. In the same way, we can also perceive the attributes and characteristics of the pure essence of the Creator from the qualities and orderliness that pervade ...

The Need of the World for One Without Need

The Need of the World for One Without Need
The principle of causality is a general and universal law and foundation for all efforts of man, both in the acquisition of knowledge and in his customary activities. The strivings of scholars to uncover the cause of every phenomenon, whether natural or social, arise from the belief that no phenomenon originates in and of itself without the intervention of causes and agents. The researches of thinkers throughout the world have given them ...

Belief in the Reality of the Unseen Involves More than God

Belief in the Reality of the Unseen Involves More than God
One of the characteristics of the unique God to the knowledge and worship of Whom Prophets and religious leaders summon us is that He is utterly inaccessible to sense perception. In addition, He possesses the attributes of pre-eternity and post-eternity. Existing everywhere, He is nowhere. Throughout the world of nature and sensory being His manifestations have an objective existence and His will is everywhere manifest in the world of ...

The Development of Beliefs Through the Ages

The Development of Beliefs Through the Ages
Among the fundamental intellectual topics that concern human life, religious questions enjoy a particular importance. They have always been regarded, in fact, as the most basic concern for the well- being and destiny of man and have produced profound insights and extensive knowledge. Scholars and researchers have undertaken wide-ranging and comprehensive studies on the origins and motives of man's religious concerns, pursuing their ...

The Principles of Jurisprudence (2)

The Principles of Jurisprudence (2)
Furthermore, the Holy Prophet and the Imams have authentically reported to have told us that forged Traditions would appear, and in order to distinguish the true from the false, we must compare all Traditions with the Quran, and any Traditions that disagree with the Quran must be realised to be false and thus be disregarded, meaning that they are not worthy of any respect. This of course cannot be done without referring to the Quran. What ...

The Autonomy of the Spirit as a Proof of Resurrection

The Autonomy of the Spirit as a Proof of Resurrection
    The existence and independence of the spirit can also be adduced as a decisive and convincing proof of life after death. Numerous theories have been put forward by scholars concerning the riddle of the spirit, and the greater becomes the scope of philosophical inquiry and the more carefully use is made of human knowledge, the clearer and more convincing become the proofs for the existence of the spirit and its independence from the ...

How does the Holy Qur'an present God?

How does the Holy Qur'an present God?
    When we wish to assess the scientific personality and knowledge of a scholar, we examine his works and subject them to close study. Similarly, in order to measure the talent, creativity and ability of an artist to invent original images, we undertake the study of his artistic production.In the same way, we can also perceive the attributes and characteristics of the pure essence of the Creator from the qualities and orderliness that ...

Life of the Next World

Life of the Next World
    The principle of belief in the eternal life of the next world is one of the important points of Islamic conception of cosmos and a fundamental tenet of Islam. A belief in the next world is an essential condition of being a Muslim and anyone who denies that is not a Muslim. Next to the confession of monotheism, this is the most important doctrine preached by all the Prophets without any exception. The scholastic theologians of Islam ...

Principles of Ethics in the View of the Ancients

Principles of Ethics in the View of the Ancients
    First, we shall review a prospect of the principles of ethics in view of pioneers of this technique, and study exactly the course of their discussion in brief.Ethics scholars have summarized principles of moral virtues in four articles:1- Wisdom2- Chastity3- Bravery4- JusticeThey believe that each of these four principles has a norm, between two extremes of sensual powers and instincts, and so moral vices are on two sides of them, ...

Honesty, the Most Manifest Sign of Personality

Honesty, the Most Manifest Sign of Personality
    Undoubtedly, two attributes of truthfulness and honesty (truth and trust) are the most manifest signs of personality. Rather, we can not call a human the one who lacks these two, and both of them originate from a common source, because truthfulness is nothing else than trust in speech, as trust is nothing else than truth in action, and as we will see their social results are similar. Haply for this respect, "truth in speech" and ...

Shia's Belief in Fate and Destiny

Shia's Belief in Fate and Destiny
    As soon as I became acquainted with the Shi’ah ‘ulamà’,197 reading their books, I became aware of a new science called fate and destiny.Al-’Imàm ‘Ali (peace be upon him) has elucidated this, through the most express statement, when giving a reply to someone who asked him about fate and destiny (al-qadà’ wa al-qadar), saying:“Woe to you. You take it as a final and unavoidable destiny (according to which we are bound ...

A Glimpse at the Political Philosophy of Islam

A Glimpse at the Political Philosophy of Islam
    If we want to make a balanced comparison between Islamic and other views in the field of polity and form of government we should make a review of the important issues in the philosophy of politics, and on every issue find out what is the view of Islam, comparing it with the other views. We must make a detailed investigation of the basic differences between them. Very briefly, we will now mention some issues and explain the views of ...

Islamic Theology (Elmul-Kalam)

Islamic Theology (Elmul-Kalam)
Theology literally is driven from the Greek term 'theos' -God- and 'logy' –science, study- . Theology, therefore, is a systematic study of the fundamental beliefs of a religion.; Thus, Jewish theology, Roman Catholic theology and Islamic theology, etc. Muslim scholars refer to Islamic theology as 'Elmul-Kalam' which literally means 'the science of rational discourse. (Elm=science, al-Kalam= word) There are two famous opinions as to why ...

The Subjects of the Principles

The Subjects of the Principles
So as to acquaint the respected reader with the issues of the Principles of Jurisprudence we will discuss the main outline, not in the order followed by the scholars of the Principles, but in an order which will better suit our purposes. Previously, we stated that the study of Principles is a study of instructions, meaning that it teaches us the way of correctly and validly deducing the commandments of religion from the original sources. ...

THE SHI'ITE KALAM

THE SHI'ITE KALAM
Now it is time to take up Shi'ite kalam, if only briefly. Kalam, in the sense of logical and rational argument about the principal doctrines of Islam, has a special and distinguished place in the Shi'ah tradition. The Shi'ite kalam, on the one hand, emerges from the core of Shi'ite hadith, and, on the other, is mixed with Shi'ite philosophy. We have seen how, in the early centuries, kalam was considered to be inimical to the Sunnah and the ...

The Name "'Ilm al-Kalam"

The Name
  Another point is why this discipline has been called " 'ilm al-kalam", and when this name was given to it. Some have said that it was called "kalam" (lit. speech) because it gives an added power of speech and argument to one who is well-versed in it. Some say that the reason lies in the habit of the experts of this science who began their own statements in their books with the expression "al-kalamu fi kadha". Others explain that it was ...

An Introduction to 'Ilm al-Kalam

An Introduction to 'Ilm al-Kalam
This long article is a part of Martyr Murtada Mutahhari's book Ashna'i ba 'ulum-e Islami (An Introduction to the Islamic Sciences). The book consists of seven parts: (1) logic (2) philosophy (3) al-kalam (Muslim scholastic philosophy) (4) 'irfan (Islamic mysticism) (5) usul-e fiqh (the principles of jurisprudence) (6) fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) (7) hikmat-e 'amali' (practical philosophy or practical morality). All the seven parts together ...